Book of Mormon/Geography/LDS models table

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PERSPECTIVES MEDIA QUESTIONS RESOURCES 2014 CONFERENCE
Model Name Date Proposed Scope Narrow Neck Land North Land South Cumorah River Sidon Nephi's Landing Religion Type of model
Tyler n.d. n.d N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Lauritzen n.d. n.d. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
General 1830s 1830 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena? Chile LDS External edit
Times and Seasons 1842 1842 HGT? Unclear Tehuantepec-NY? Unclear New York Unclear Colombia LDS External edit
Pratt 1866 1866 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile LDS External edit
Com.-Maes 1880 1880 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile LDS External edit
Reynolds 1880 1880 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile LDS External edit
Plain Facts 1887 1887 HGT Panama Guatemala South America New York? Magdalena Chile? LDS Minimal external edit
Roberts 1888 1888 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile LDS External edit
Ricks 1904 1904 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America Unclear Magdalena Chile LDS External edit
Young pre-1920? 1920 LGT Other Guatemala Honduras-El Salvador Guatemala Ulna Central America LDS External edit
Driggs 1925 1925 HGT Honduras Bay Panama to NY Southern Guatemala Guatemala Ulna Central America LDS External edit
Bagley 1927 1927 HGT Belize-Yucatan base South-Central Mexico Unclear New York Unclear Unclear LDS External edit
Sjodhal 1927 1927 HGT Tehuantepec Tehuantepec-NY Unclear New York Unclear Chile LDS External edit
Washburn/Washburn 1939 1939 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Jakeman 1940s 1940 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Central America LDS External edit
Laytons 1940? 1940 HGT Tehuantepec Tehuantepec-NY Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan New York Usumacinta Unclear LDS Internal and Minimal External edit
Ferguson 1947 1947 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Wilde 1947 1947 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America? New York Unclear Chile? LDS External edit
Birrell 1948 1948 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Peru and south In South America In Peru Chile LDS External edit
Ferguson-Hunter 1950 1950 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta? Central America LDS Minimal internal & external edit
Pierce 1954 1954 LGT Other Yucatan Peninsula Unclear Guatemala Ulna Central America LDS External edit
Sorenson 1955 1955 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America LDS External edit
Dixon 1958 1958 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Unclear Central America LDS External edit
Hammond 1959 1959 LGT Tehuantepec? Unclear Tehuantepec - El Salvador? Central Mexico? Usumacinta Chile LDS Internal and Minimal External edit
Lowe 1960a 1960 LGT Honduras Bay Guatemala Other Guatemala Unclear Central America LDS External edit
Lowe 1960b 1960 LGT Other Unclear Other Southern Veracruz? Usumacinta Central America LDS External edit
Vincent 1960? 1960 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta? Central America? LDS External edit
Warren 1960 1960 LGT Tehuantepec? South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Central America LDS External edit
Warren 1961 1961 LGT Unclear South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta Central America LDS External edit
Ludlow n.d. 1964 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Norman 1966 1966 LGT Tehuantepec? South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan? Unclear Usumacinta Central America LDS External edit
Christensen 1969 1969 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Unclear Guatemala? Ulna Central America LDS External edit
Lowe 1970s 1970 LGT Other Unclear Other Southern Veracruz? Usumacinta Central America? LDS External edit
Priddis 1975 1975 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Other In South America Unclear Chile LDS External edit
Ludlow 1976 1976 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Robison 1977 1977 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Southern Guatemala Guatemala Usumacinta Unclear LDS External edit
Ellsworth 1980 1980 LGT Other Unclear Other Unclear Other Central America LDS Internal & limited external edit
Palmer 1981 1981 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America LDS External edit
Holley 1983 1983 LGT Niagara peninsula Lower Canada? NY, Penn, Ohio New York Genesse New England coast LDS External edit
Porritt 1985 1985 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America LDS External edit
Kocherhans 1986 1986 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Peru and south In South America In Peru Chile LDS External edit
Nielson 1987 1987 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Sahlin 1987 1987 LGT Unclear Unclear Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Unclear Grijalva Unclear LDS External edit
Warren 1987 1987 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America LDS External edit
Curtis 1988 1988 LGT Niagara Peninsula Unclear Other New York Unclear Unclear LDS External edit
Hauck 1988 1988 LGT Other Unclear Southern Guatemala Southern Veracruz Other Central America LDS External edit
Hobby-Smith 1988 1988 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America Central Mexico Unclear Chile? LDS External edit
Proctor 1988 1988 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Qulter 1988 1988 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Southern Guatemala Unclear Other Central America LDS External edit
Allen 1989 1989 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America LDS External edit
Clark 1989 1989 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LDS Internal edit
Olive 2001 2001 LGT  [needs work]  [needs work]  [needs work]  [needs work]  [needs work]  [needs work] LDS  [needs work] edit
Goble-May 2002 2002 LGT Niagara Peninsula New York/Upper Canada Eastern US/Midwest New York Mississippi Gulf of Mexico LDS External edit
Pate 2002 2002 LGT Bridge over Samalá River (Mukulic-ya) at Santa Crúz Muluá, Guatemala Mam Culture, Western Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala Cotzumalhuapa Culture, Southern Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala. Cumarkah (Utatlán) Santa Crúz del Quiché, Guatemala. There are two -- Pantaleon (Alma 2:15) and Michatoya (Alma 16:6), Guatemala Acajutla, El Salvador LDS External with complete internal correlation edit
Meldrum 2003 2003? LGT Niagara Peninsula Upper Canada Mississippi river system to Gulf of Mexico New York Mississippi Gulf of Mexico LDS External edit
Goble 2004 2004 LGT/HGT Tehuantepec From Tehuantepec Northward Mesoamerica/Preclassic Maya New York Undetermined Undetermined LDS External edit
Poulsen 2004 2004 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Tepetzintla (further North than Veracruz) Grijalva Central America LDS External edit

Table based on John L. Sorenson, The Geography of Book of Mormon Events: A Source Book (Provo, Utah: FARMS, revised edition, 1992), 32. AISN B0006QHZWE. off-site with additions and corrections by FAIR Wiki editors.

Book of Mormon geography models in table form:

The geographical setting of the Book of Mormon has been the subject of serious study and casual speculation since before the book was first published. We describe the various theories and examine the strengths and weaknesses of each. (Click here for full article)

  • Old World
    Brief Summary: Old World or Arabian, geography - this considers the journey from Jerusalem to Old World Bountiful, where Nephi constructed the ship. (Click here for full article)
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    • Lehi's cave
      Brief Summary: I've heard about a place in the Arabian desert called "Lehi's cave." Does this provide evidence for the Book of Mormon? (Click here for full article)
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  • New World
    Brief Summary: New World geography - location of the majority of the Book of Mormon narrative, in the "promised land"—somewhere in the western hemisphere. (Click here for full article)
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    • Hemispheric geography theory (HGT)
      Brief Summary: The Hemispheric Geography Theory (or HGT) is the traditional understanding of the Book of Mormon. It postulates that the events in the book took place over North and South America, with the Isthmus of Panama as the narrow neck of land. (Click here for full article)
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    • Limited geography theory (LGT)
      Brief Summary: The Limited Geography Theory (or LGT) is a non-traditional interpretation of the text, but one that has gained wide acceptance among the Book of Mormon scholars and readers over the last 60 years. It is based on a close reading of the text, which indicates that the lands inhabited by the Lehites could be traversed on foot in only a few weeks, making the area no larger than present-day California. (Click here for full article)
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    • Location of the Hill Cumorah
      Brief Summary: If Mormon chapter 6 is a literal description of the destruction of the Nephites by the Lamanites — approximately 100 thousand were killed by swords and axes — why hasn't any evidence of the battle been found at the site that was traditionally identified as the hill Cumorah in western New York state? (Click here for full article)
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  • Statements
    Brief Summary: Statements made by Church leaders, members, and publications about Book of Mormon geography issues (Click here for full article)
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    • No revealed geography
      Brief Summary: A collection of statements indicating that there is no revealed geography for the Book of Mormon (these quotes are also in the collections below, by date). (Click here for full article)
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    • Statements by Hugh Nibley
      Brief Summary: LDS scholar Hugh Nibley is sometimes cited out of context by advocates of a geography theory who wish to claim his support for their ideas. They do this to disguise that Nibley argued for Mesoamerican involvement in the Book of Mormon. All of Nibley's statements should be considered if one wishes to know what he thought. (Click here for full article)
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  • Models
    Brief Summary: Book of Mormon geographical models (Click here for full article)
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  • Disdaining Joseph?
    Brief Summary: Do LDS scholars "disdain" the statements of Joseph Smith related to Book of Mormon geography? (Click here for full article)
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  • Definition of "continent" in the 1820s
    Brief Summary: With regard to the location of Book of Mormon lands, it is sometimes claimed that "[t]here's a North American continent and a South American continent in Noah Webster's [1850] dictionary," and that this means that all references to "this continent" must refer to North America. Webster's 1828 dictionary defines a ""continent"" as follows: "1. In geography, a great extent of land, not disjoined or interrupted by a sea; a connected tract of land of great extent; as the Eastern and Western continent. It differs from an isle only in extent. New Holland may be denominated a continent. Britain is called a continent, as opposed to the isle of Anglesey." Therefore, Webster's definition of a "Eastern and Western continent" is equivalent to today's definition of "Eastern and Western hemisphere." (Click here for full article)
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  • Location of Zarahemla
    Brief Summary: It is claimed that the location of the city of Zarahemla was provided to Joseph Smith through revelation and that it was located on the Mississippi River opposite where Nauvoo is located today. (Click here for full article)
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  • Borders of the Lamanites
    Brief Summary: Does the proposal of a Mesoamerican limited geographical Book of Mormon setting contradict D&C 54:8, which discusses the "borders of the Lamanites" being in North America? (Click here for full article)
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  • No maps in the Book of Mormon
    Brief Summary: Why are there no maps in the Book of Mormon? (Click here for full article)
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  • Transoceanic Crossing
    Brief Summary: The Book of Mormon, in 1 Nephi chapters 17 and 18, recounts that Nephi built a ship in which the Lehi colony sailed from the old world to the new. In June 2010 the History Channel aired a documentary, "Who Really Discovered America?" which claims that it would have been impossible for a ship (such as that made by Nephi) to have successfully carried the people and necessary supplies in a transoceanic crossing. (Click here for full article)
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Sometimes falsified artifacts are used to promote a Book of Mormon geography (Click here for full article)

  • Bat Creek Stone
    Brief Summary: The "Bat Creek Stone" purports to a stone written in Paleo-Hebrew reading "for the Jews". A preponderance of the evidence available argues that the stone is a modern forgery. As exciting as it would be to find a genuine ancient inscription, it would only harm others' belief in the Book of Mormon to advocate forgeries in contradiction of good evidence. (Click here for full article)
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  • Burrows Cave artifacts
    Brief Summary: The Burrows Cave collection is a group of objects supposedly found in a Cave in Illinois, named after Russell Burrows, the person who claimed to have found the cave. To this day, Burrows Cave enthusiasts have never demonstrated the existence of the cave. The artifacts contain many obvious hallmarks of modern manufacture, including the so-called "mystic symbol" found on artifacts in the Michigan artifacts collection. This is offered as evidence that the hoaxers deliberately meant to associate these artifacts with the Michigan collection. Some LDS people have fallen prey to those who push these artifacts as genuine. (Click here for full article)
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  • Michigan artifacts
    Brief Summary: The "Michigan Artifacts" or "Michigan relics" are a group of "artifacts" produced by hoaxers in the late 19th century and around the turn of the 20th Century from Michigan. They wanted to produce "proof" of the existence of the ancient civilization known in 19th century lore as the Mound Builders. Many contain scenes from biblical stories. Some LDS members have been misled into believing that the artifacts are genuine. Not surprisingly, advocates of the Michigan artifacts also push the Burrows Cave collection. (Click here for full article)
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  • Newark Decalogue Stone
    Brief Summary: These items, which were presented to the public in 1860, have Hebrew writing on them. Some have used them as evidence for the Book of Mormon, but this is problematic on two grounds: (1) the items may be modern forgeries; and (2) even if authentic, the writing dates to around AD 100-300, which is too late to represent the 600 BC Lehi colony. (Click here for full article)
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