City of Nauvoo/Crime and violence/Further Reading
FAIR wiki articles
History of the Mormon Reformation
Doctrine taught during the Reformation
- Blood atonement—
Critics claim that during the administration of Brigham Young apostates were secretly put to death. They claim this is in line with the teachings of LDS leaders at the time that apostasy was the unforgivable sin, and that the only thing an apostate could do to redeem himself was to give his own life, willingly or unwillingly. (Link)
- Brigham Young's preaching style—
Critics have often misunderstood or misrepresented Brigham Young's (and others LDS preachers') preaching style (Link)
- 19th century crimes alleged to be "worthy of death"—
Critics expand to idea of blood atonement to include a long list of crimes that were alleged to be "worthy of death." (Link)
- Brigham Young: "bowie knife" (JD 1:83) (Link)
- Brigham Young: "cut their throats" (JD 2:311) (Link)
- Brigham Young: "cutting off from the earth" (JD 4:53) (Link)
- Brigham Young: "killing the evil doers" (JD 3:50} (Link)
- Brigham Young: "meanest devils" (JD 6:176) (Link)
- Brigham Young: murder unfaithful Mormons to save souls? (JD 4:219-20) (Link)
- Brigham Young: dictator? (JD 14:205) (Link)
- Brigham Young: President of the US? (Link)
- Danites (Link)
- Surveyor general David H. Burr threatened with death (Link)
- Castration of sinners in Utah?—
I have read about a group of men (LDS) that went around castrating immoral men (who were also LDS) with the express permission of local church leaders. These events supposedly happened during the Brigham Young's administration. It is claimed that Brigham was aware of and approved of this and may have given the order. What can you tell me about this? I read that missionaries who selected plural wives from female converts before allowing church leaders to select from them first were castrated. (Link)
- Mountain Meadows Massacre—
In September 1857 a group of Mormons in southern Utah killed all adult members of an Arkansas wagon train that was headed for California. Critics charge that the massacre was typical of Mormon "culture of violence," and claim that Church leaders—possibly as high as Brigham Young—approved of, or even ordered the killing. (Link)
- Oath of vengeance—
In nearly every anti-Mormon discussion of the temple, critics raise the issue of the "oath of vengeance" that existed during the 19th century and very early 20th century. These critics often misstate the nature of the oath and try to use its presence in the early temple endowment as evidence that the LDS temple ceremonies are ungodly, violent, and immoral. (Link)
FAIR web site
|Mormon Reformation (1857) FAIR articles on-line|
- FAIR Topical Guide: Blood atonement FAIR link
- Mike Parker, Did Brigham Young Say that He Would Kill an Adulterous Wife with a Javelin?
- Kenneth W. Godfrey, "Crime and Punishment in Mormon Nauvoo, 1839-1846," Brigham Young University Studies 32 no. 1-2 (1991), 195-228. PDF link
- Eric A. Eliason, "Review of: Forgotten Kingdom: The Mormon Theocracy in the American West, 1847–1896," FARMS Review of Books 12/1 (2000): 95–112. off-site PDF link
|Mormon Reformation (1857) links|
- Thomas G. Alexander, "Wilford Woodruff and the Mormon Reformation of 1855-57," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 15 (Summer 1992): 25-39. (needs URL / links)
- Russell C. McGregor, "Wild Bill Rides Again: The Tanners on the Danites," (March 1999) off-site
Analysis of an article about the Danites and Blood Atonement by Jerald and Sandra Tanner.
- B.H. Roberts, "Brigham's Blood Atonement," Compiled by Sam Katich (November 2002)
B.H. Roberts reporting of miscellaneous events from the years 1851-1857 that deal with the topic of blood atonement and the 1889 Manifesto of the Presidency and Apostles that denounce the allegations of the practice.
- Lowell M. Snow, "Blood Atonement," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 1:131. off-site off-site
- Dale L. Morgan, The State of Deseret (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1987), 7—27.
|Mormon Reformation (1857) printed material|
- Davis Bitton, "'I'd Rather Have Some Roasting Ears': The Peregrinations of George Armstrong Hicks," Utah Historical Quarterly 68/3 (Summer 2000): 196–222.
- Gustave O. Larson, "The Mormon Reformation," Utah Historical Quarterly 26/1 (January 1958): 44–63.
- Michael Orme, "The Causes of the Mormon Reformation of 1856-57." Tangents III (1975): 15-43.
- Bruce R. McConkie, "Blood Atonement Doctrine," in Mormon Doctrine, 2nd edition, (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1966), 92–93. GospeLink (requires subscrip.)GL direct link
- Charles W. Penrose, Blood Atonement, As Taught by Leading Elders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, 1884).
- Paul H. Peterson, "The Mormon Reformation," PhD Dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1989, 176–199.
- Paul H. Peterson, "The Mormon Reformation of 1856-1857: The Rhetoric and the Reality," Journal of Mormon History 15 (1989): 59–87.
- Howard C. Searle, "The Mormon Reformation of 1856-1857" (M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1956).