Doctrine and Covenants/Textual changes/Adam and Michael conflated in Doctrine and Covenants 137
- The name "Michael" was deleted from Joseph Smith's vision of the Celestial Kingdom because Adam is Michael. Critics claim that the Church was trying to hide a "slip up" by Joseph Smith, who had identified Adam as Michael on multiple occasions in the past.
Joseph tended to dictate his writings and even personal letters. Despite being in his "journal," the text is not something he produced himself, but something that a new scribe and member recorded--with an apparent error.
Matthew Brown noted that the original text of this revelation may help explain what happened:
- “[Warren] Parrish’s transcription of [Joseph Smith’s] vision [in Joseph Smith’s journal dated 21 January 1836] seems to differentiate Adam and the archangel Michael as two separate individuals. Yet [Joseph Smith] identified Michael as Adam at least a year earlier and made the same identification four years later. The text recorded by Warren Parrish may provide a clue about its incorrect content. It reads: “I saw father Adam, and Abraham and Michael and my father and mother, my brother Alvin.” The “Mi” of “Michael” and the word “my” that follows almost immediately after it have the exact same sound. The structures within the sentence are also identical (“and Mi . . . and my”). It seems, therefore, that Warren Parrish (a relatively recent convert [20 May 1833] and newly-assigned scribe for the Prophet [29 October 1835]) may have recorded a modified dittography based upon what he heard Joseph Smith say.
- [note] Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to John Whitmer, [Liberty, MO], 1 January 1834, in Cowdery, Letterbook, 15; Revelation, ca. August 1830, in Doctrine and Covenants 50:2, 1835 ed. [D&C 27:11]; Richards, “Pocket Companion,” 74–75; Robert B. Thompson, sermon notes, 5 October 1840, [Joseph Smith] Collection, [Church History Library]; Dean C. Jessee, Mark Ashurst-McGee, and Richard L. Jensen, eds., The Joseph Smith Papers, Journals, Volume 1: 1832–1839 (Salt Lake City: The Church Historian’s Press, 2008), 167–68, n. 319.
- [note] Joseph Smith Papers, Journals, Vol. 1: 1832-1839, 167–68.
- [note] Matthew B. Brown, FAIR Conference address on Adam, text September 2009, endnote #54.
FAIR wiki articles
- Textual changes—
Joseph Smith and others made revisions, additions, and deletions to his early revelations when preparing them for publication. Critics claim that revelations from God are inerrant and should never be changed, and this proves that Joseph Smith did not receive revelation. (Link)
- Oliver Cowdery and the "rod of nature"—
Critics claim that a revelation received by Joseph praised Oliver Cowdery's gift of using divining talents. It is claimed that the revelation was published in the Book of Commandments in its original form, then subsequently modified in the Doctrine and Covenants in order to hide the reference to the "rod of nature." Therefore, Joseph attempted to "cover up" Oliver Cowdery's work with a divining rod by changing a revelation. (Link)
- Direct quotation from God?—
Is the wording of the D&C revelations a direct word-for-word quotation from God? Critics note that if the Doctrine and Covenants contained quotations from God, why would Joseph Smith later edit God's words? (Link)
Criticism of the Doctrine and Covenants
- Contradiction between Section 132 and Jacob 2—
Critics note that D&C 132 speaks favorably about some Old Testament practitioners of plural marriage, while Jacob 2 is negative. Critics claim that this discrepancy is a contradiction, suggesting that Joseph Smith's ideas about plural marriage changed, and the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants are not inspired. (Link)
- D&C 84 states that God cannot be seen without priesthood—
How could Joseph Smith has seen God the Father and Jesus Christ during the First Vision if he had not yet received the priesthood? (Link)
Doctrine and Covenants and Book of Mormon geography
- References to Lamanites in the D&C—
Since in the Doctrine and Covenants the Lord refers to American Indians in North America as "Lamanites" (e.g., DC 28:8-9,14, DC 30:6, DC 32:2, DC 54:8), does this cause problems for the Limited Geography Theory (LGT) or issues of Amerindian genetic data? (Link)
- 1835 Doctrine and Covenants denies polygamy—
The 1835 edition of the D&C contained a statement of marriage which denied the practice of polygamy. Since this was published during Joseph Smith's lifetime, why might the prophet have allowed it to be published if he was actually practicing polygamy at that time? (Link)
Teachings contained within
- Is the Father embodied or a spirit?—
When the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants was published in 1835 it portrayed God the Father as a personage of spirit whereas Jesus Christ was portrayed as a personage of tabernacle, or one having a physical body. Yet the official LDS First Vision story portrays the Father as a physical Being. Critics claim that this is evidence of an evolution of story; and that the evolution of this story is evidence of fraud. (Link)
- God a personage of spirit?—
Lectures on Faith, which used to be part of the Doctrine and Covenants, teach that God is a spirit. Joseph Smith's later teachings contradict this. More generally, critics argue that Joseph Smith taught an essentially "trinitarian" view of the Godhead until the mid 1830s, thus proving the Joseph was "making it up" as he went along. (Link)
As part of the Doctrine and Covenants
- Lectures on Faith removed from Doctrine and Covenants—
Critics argue that the Lectures on Faith were "quietly" removed from the Doctrine and Covenants without general church membership consent, that the Lectures on Faith are not available to the general Church membership through Church sources, and that they can only be obtained through non-LDS sources (despite their availability at Deseret Book). (Link)
FAIR web site
- FAIR Topical Guide: Infallibility FAIR link
- FAIR Topical Guide: Personal beliefs of prophets FAIR link
|D&C FAIR articles on-line|
|D&C articles with links|
- Stephen R. Gibson, "Why Did Joseph Smith Make Changes In the Doctrine & Covenants?," in One-Minute Answers to Anti-Mormon Questions (Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, 2005) ISBN 0882907840. off-site
- Marlin K. Jensen, "The Joseph Smith Papers: The Manuscript Revelation Books," Ensign (July 2009), 46–51. off-site (Key source)
- Boyd K. Packer, "We Believe All That God Has Revealed," Ensign (May 1974), 93. off-site; also in Boyd K. Packer, "We Believe All That God Has Revealed," in Conference Report (April 1974), 137.
- Melvin J. Petersen, "Preparing Early Revelations for Publication," Ensign (February 1985), 14. off-site
- Melvin J. Petersen, A Study of the Nature of and the Significance of the Changes in the Revelations as Found in a Comparison of the Book of Commandments and Subsequent Editions of the Doctrine and Covenants, master's thesis, Brigham Young University, 1955. off-site (Key source)
- Robert J. Woodford, "Doctrine and Covenants Editions," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 1:425–427. off-site off-site off-site
- Robert J. Woodford, "How the Revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants Were Received and Compiled," Ensign (January 1985), 27. off-site (Key source)
- Robert J. Woodford, "The Story of the Doctrine and Covenants," Ensign (December 1984), 32. off-site
Lectures on Faith
- The Lectures on Faith off-site
- Larry E Dahl, "Lectures on Faith," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 2:818–821. off-site off-site off-site
- Leland H. Gentry, "What of the Lectures on Faith?," Brigham Young University Studies 19 no. 1 (Fall 1978), 5–19. PDF link
- Noel B. Reynolds, "The Case for Sidney Rigdon as Author of the Lecture on Faith (8 June 2004) [based on version given at Mormon History Association meeting at Kirtland 2003]. PDF link
- Noel B. Reynolds, "The Authorship Debate concerning Lectures on Faith: Exhumation and Reburial," in The Disciple As Witness: Essays on Latter-Day Saint History and Doctrine in Honor of Richard Lloyd Anderson, edited by Richard Lloyd Anderson, Stephen D. Ricks, Donald W. Parry, and Andrew H. Hedges, (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 2000), Chapter 14. ISBN 0934893454. ISBN 978-0934893459. off-site direct off-site
|Doctrine & Covenants print works|
- Donald Q. Cannon, "Latter-day Visions of the Savior" in Hearken, O Ye People: Discourses on the Doctrine and Covenants (Sandy, UT: Randall Book, 1984), 119–131.
- Robert J. Woodford, The Historical Development of the Doctrine and Covenants, Ph.D. dissertation (3 volumes), Brigham Young University, 1974. (CD-ROM version from BYU Studies.) (Hard copy available from UMI Dissertation Express; order number 8027231.) (Key source)
Lectures on Faith
- Larry Dahl and Charles Tate, The Lectures on Faith in Historical Perspective (Provo: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1990).
- Wayne A. Larsen and Alvin C. Rencher, "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? An Analysis of Wordprints," Brigham Young University Studies 20 (Spring 1980), 249, Appendix E ("Lectures on Faith". This was revised and reprinted in Book of Mormon Authorship: New Light on Ancient Origins, edited by Noel B. Reynolds, Religious Studies Monograph Series, vol. 7 (Salt Lake City and Provo: Bookcraft, 1982), 183-84.
- Elinore H. Partridge, "Characteristics of Joseph Smith's Style and Notes on the Authorship of the Lectures on Faith," Task Papers in LDS History, no. 14 (Salt Lake City: Submitted to History Division, Historical Department, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1976).
- Alan J. Phipps, "The Lectures on Faith: An Authorship Study" (Master's thesis, Brigham Young University, 1977).
- Richard S. Van Wagoner, Steven C. Walker, and Allen D. Roberts, "The ´Lectures on Faith´: A Case Study in Decanonization," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 20 no. 3 (Fall 1987), 71–77. off-site