Mormonism and Wikipedia/First Vision/Background in the supernatural

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    An analysis of the Wikipedia article "First Vision"

A FairMormon Analysis of Wikipedia: Mormonism and Wikipedia/First Vision
A work by a collaboration of authors (Link to Wikipedia article here)
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Context and development of the vision story  Updated 9/17/2011

Background

From the Wikipedia article:
Joseph Smith, Jr. was born on December 23, 1805 in Vermont, and c. 1816-17, his family moved to a farm just outside the town of Palmyra.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1832) , p. 1

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources


From the Wikipedia article:
Like many other Americans living on the frontier at the beginning of the 19th century, Joseph Smith, Jr. and his family believed in visions, dreams, and other mystical communications with God.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Quinn (1998)

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources


From the Wikipedia article:
For example, in 1811, Joseph Smith, Jr.'s maternal grandfather, Solomon Mack, described a series of visions and voices from God that resulted in his conversion to Christianity at the age of seventy-six.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • "About midnight I saw a light about a foot from my face as bright as fire; the doors were all shut and no one stirring in the house. I thought by this that I had but a few moments to live, and oh what distress I was in....Another night soon after, I saw another light as bright as the first, at a small distance from my face, and I thought I had but a few moments to live. And not sleeping nights and reading, all day I was in misery; well you may think I was in distress, soul and body. At another time in the dead of the night I was called by my Christian name; I arise up to answer to my name. The doors all being shut and the house still, I thought the Lord called, and I had but a moment to live."Mack (1811) , p. 25

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources
  • Although this is interesting, we are not quite sure why this is even mentioned, unless the wiki editors are attempting to prove that having visions is hereditary.


From the Wikipedia article:
Before Joseph Smith, Jr. was born, his mother Lucy Mack Smith went to a grove near her home in Vermont and prayed about her husband Joseph Smith, Sr.'s repudiation of evangelical religion.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1853) , p. 54

FAIR's analysis:

  • This event is also referred to in Lucy's 1845 manuscript. In the 1845 manuscript, Lucy writes

I was very much hurt by this but did not reply to him then but retired to a grove of handsome wild cherry trees and pray[ed] to the Lord that he <would> so influence the heart of my husband that he would <one day> be induced to rec[e]ive the Gospel whenever it was preached[.]

  • As it is known that Lucy prayed many times and for many reasons, we can only assume that the wiki editor chose to include this because she went to a grove of trees to pray and he wants to relate that to her son Joseph's later experience in a grove.


From the Wikipedia article:
That night she said she had a dream which she interpreted as a prophecy that Joseph, Sr., would later accept the "pure and undefiled Gospel of the Son of God."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1853) , pp. 55–56; Quinn (1998) .

FAIR's analysis:

  • Lucy states,

And the interpretation given to me was...Joseph, when he was more advanced in life, would hear and received with his whole heart, and rejoice therein; and unto him would be added intelligence, happiness, glory and everlasting life.


From the Wikipedia article:
She also stated that Smith, Sr. had a number of dreams or visions between 1811 and 1819,

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1853) , pp. 56–59, 70–74. Smith, Sr.'s first vision was around 1811 (id. at 56-57), and his "seventh and last vision" was in 1819 (id. at 73–74). Bushman says, "The best barometer of the household's religious climate are seven dreams Joseph Sr. had in the years before and after his son's first vision. Lucy wrote down five of them, calling them visions. Since no other member of the family gave an account of the dreams or even referred to them, and Lucy recorded them thirty years later, there is no way of testing the accuracy of her memory." Bushman (2005) , p. 36.

FAIR's analysis:
 Violates Wikipedia: No Original Research off-site— Do not use unpublished facts, arguments, speculation, and ideas; and any unpublished analysis or synthesis of published material that serves to advance a position.

The primary source is interpreted by the wiki editor to say that the dreams and visions occurred between 1811 and 1819, while an allowable secondary source (Bushman) states that they occurred "before and after" Joseph Smith's first vision.


From the Wikipedia article:
the first vision occurring when his mind was "much excited upon the subject of religion."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1853) , pp. 56–57.

FAIR's analysis:
 FAIR WIKI EDITORS: Check sources


From the Wikipedia article:
Joseph Sr.'s first vision confirmed to him the correctness of his refusal to join any organized religious group.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1853) , pp. 57–58. Joseph Smith, Sr.'s second vision as reported by Lucy Mack Smith exhibits many similarities to the Tree of life vision which Joseph Smith, Jr. would later dictate as part of the Book of Mormon Bushman (2005) , p. 36.

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources
  • Lucy Mack Smith's 1853 history may be found in Vogel, Early Mormon Documents 1:254. Note also that this phrase was added to the 1853 history and does not appear in the 1845 manuscript. Lucy notes this event as sometime around March 1811, after the birth of their son William:

About this time my husband's mind became much excited upon the subject of religion; yet he would not subscribe to any particular system of faith, but contended or the ancient order, as established by our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and his Apostles.


From the Wikipedia article:
The Smith family was also exposed to the intense revivalism of this era. During the Second Great Awakening, numerous revivals occurred in many communities in the northeastern United States and were often reported in the Palmyra Register, a local paper read by the Smith family.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Turner (1852) , p. 214

FAIR's analysis:

  • The wiki article is making the assumption that Joseph Smith's First Vision was triggered by a formal religious revival. Joseph claimed that there was an "unusual excitement."


From the Wikipedia article:
In the Palmyra area itself, the only large multi-denominational revivals occurred in 1816-1817 and 1824-1825.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Bushman (2005) , pp. 36, 46; Vogel (2004) , pp. 26, 58–60: "Indeed, it was the revival of 1824-25, his family's conversion, and his mother's pressure that caused [Smith] so much pain and suffering rather than the revival of 1817 or the one he 'remembered' for 1820." Even Bushman does not argue for an 1820 revival in Palmyra, stating only that the "great revival of 1816 and 1817, which nearly doubled the number of Palmyra Presbyterians, was in progress when the Smiths arrived." (36)

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Violates Wikipedia: Synthesis off-site: Do not put together information from multiple sources to reach a conclusion that is not stated explicitly by any of the sources.
    Violated by Bytebear —Diff: off-site

    The statement says that "the only" large revivals occurred before and after 1820. This is not stated in the cited source (Bushman), and is only implied by the second cited source (Vogel). If the words "the only" were removed, the sentence would be correct.
  •  Violates Wikipedia: Neutral Point-of-View off-site— All Wikipedia articles and other encyclopedic content must be written from a neutral point of view, representing fairly, and as far as possible without bias, all significant views that have been published by reliable sources.
    Violated by John Foxe —Diff: off-site

    The wiki editor is attempting to employ LDS historian Richard L. Bushman to set the stage to "prove" that there was no "revival" during the 1820 period associated with Joseph Smith's First Vision. The use of the phrase "Even Bushman does not argue for an 1820 revival" is pejorative. Bushman does not argue in favor of such an event, nor does he argue against it. Instead, he describes Joseph's state of mind in the years leading up to 1820 based upon the religious excitement that had occurred during the previous years.

</blockquote>


From the Wikipedia article:
In the intervening years, there were Methodist revivals, at least within twenty road miles of Palmyra; and more than sixty years later a newspaper editor in Lyons, New York, recalled "various religious awakenings in the neighborhood."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Mather (1880) , pp. 198–199Roberts (1902) .

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Violates Wikipedia: Neutral Point-of-View off-site— All Wikipedia articles and other encyclopedic content must be written from a neutral point of view, representing fairly, and as far as possible without bias, all significant views that have been published by reliable sources.

    There is no reason to dwell upon the number of revivals, or their proximity to Palmyra. This is simply an attempt to set the stage to imply that Joseph Smith was lying about the religious excitement that he said he experienced prior to the First Vision in 1820. Also note that the wiki editor is careful to state that the newspaper editor did not make this claim until "more than sixty years later." This subtle spin is intended to maintain doubt that such a revival might actually have occurred.
  •  References not included in the Wikipedia article
    It would be more accurate to acknowledge that the Palmyra Register reported a number of events that it called "revivals" during 1820 in the surrounding regions. The following primary source references are from secondary source Milton V. Backman, Jr., Joseph Smith's First Vision: Confirming Evidences and Contemporary Accounts, 2d ed. rev. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1980), 192-194. Although Backman is mentioned later in the Wikipedia article as having primary sources of revival activity, the article never mentions that some of these were in the Palmyra Register itself - a newspaper which the wiki article acknowledges was "read by the Smith family."
  • GREAT REVIVALS IN RELIGION. The religious excitement which has for some months prevailed in the towns of this vicinity...This is a time the prophets desired to see, but they never saw it....—Palmyra Register, June 7, 1820
  • REVIVAL. A letter from Homer [N.Y.] dated May 29, received in this town, states, that 200 persons had been hopefully converted in that town since January first; 100 of whom had been added to the Baptist church. The work was still progressing.—Palmyra Register, August 16, 1820
  • REVIVALS OF RELIGION. "The county of Saratoga, for a long time, has been as barren of revivals of religion, as perhaps any other part of this state. It has been like 'the mountains of Gilboa, on which were neither rain nor dew.' But the face of the country has been wonderfully changed of late. The little cloud made its first appearance at Saratoga Springs last summer. As the result of this revival about 40 have made a public profession of religion in Rev. Mr. Griswold's church....A revival has just commenced in the town of Nassau, a little east of Albany. It has commenced in a very powerful manner....—Palmyra Register, September 13, 1820
  • FROM THE RELIGIOUS REMEMBRANCER A SPIRITUAL HARVEST. "I wish you could have been with us yesterday. I had the pleasure to witness 80 persons receive the seal of the covenant, in front of our Church. Soon after 135 persons, new members, were received into full communion. All the first floor of the Church was cleared; the seats and pews were all crowded with the members...Palmyra Register, October 4, 1820
  • For full citations, see Religious revivals in 1820/Primary sources


From the Wikipedia article:
The family also practiced a form of folk magic,

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Quinn (1998) , p. xx-xxi A 1985 memorandum sent from the headquarter of the LDS Church Educational System to regional and local administrators read, "Even if the [Mark Hofmann] letters were to be unauthentic, such issues as Joseph Smith's involvement in treasure-seeking and folk magic remain. Ample evidence exists for both of these, even without the letters."

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources


From the Wikipedia article:
which, although not uncommon in this time and place, was criticized by many contemporary Protestants "as either fraudulent illusion or the workings of the Devil."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), 256.

FAIR's analysis:

  • The wiki editor fails to mention that some practitioners of "folk magic," such as Willard Chase, were also ministers themselves. The editor is, however, quite aware of this fact. Note the comment that editor John Foxe makes on the talk page of a different Wikipedia article "Golden Plates":

Chase is an odd duck, a money digger and a Methodist preacher, who really seems most irritated at Joseph Smith for taking his seer stone. (Get over it, Willard; it's just a rock.) My biggest problem with Chase as a witness is not that he disbelieves in Smith but that he does believe in money digging. --John Foxe (15 February 2007) off-site


From the Wikipedia article:
Both Joseph Smith, Sr. and at least two of his sons worked at "money digging," using seer stones in (mostly unsuccessful) attempts to locate lost items and buried treasure.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Smith (1838a) , pp. 42–43 (saying that he had been a "money digger" but that it "was never a very profitable job to him, as he only got fourteen dollars a month for it"). Elders’ Journal of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,1: 43 (July 1838). For a discussion of Joseph Smith's money-digging activities by a sympathetic academic biographer, see Richard L. Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 48-49.

FAIR's analysis:

  • From History of the Church 3:29:

Tenth—"Was not Joseph Smith a money digger?" Yes, but it was never a very profitable job for him, as he only got fourteen dollars a month for it.

  • Note how Richard L. Bushman is qualified as a "sympathetic" academic biographer.


From the Wikipedia article:
In a draft of her memoirs, Lucy Mack Smith referred to folk magic:
I shall change my theme for the present, but let not my reader suppose that because I shall pursue another topic for a season that we stopt our labor and went at trying to win the faculty of Abrac, drawing magic circles or soothsaying, to the neglect of all kinds of business. We never during our lives suffered one important interest to swallow up every other obligation. But whilst we worked with our hands, we endeavored to remember the service of and the welfare of our souls.
</blockquote>

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Lucy Smith "Preliminary Manuscript," LDS Church Archives, in EMD, 1: 285

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources
  • The wiki editor has updated the text and punctuation somewhat. From Vogel, p. 285:

Now I shall change my theme for the present but let not my reader suppose that because I shall pursue our labor and went <at> tryin=g to win the faculty of Abrac[,] drawing Magic circles or sooth saying to the neglect of all kinds of but[i.sness we never during our lives suffered one important interest to swallow up every other obligation but whilst we worked with our hands we endeavored to remmember the service of & the welfare of our souls.


From the Wikipedia article:
D. Michael Quinn has written that Lucy Mack Smith viewed these magical practices as "part of her family's religious quest" while denying that they prevented "family members from accomplishing other, equally important work."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • D. Michael Quinn, Early Mormonism and the Magic World View ((Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987), 55: "Joseph Smith's mother did not deny her family participation in occult activities but simply affirmed that these did not prevent family members from accomplishing other, equally important work." In a note at EMD 1: 285 (n. 84), Dan Vogel argues that this sentence from the draft may have been excised from the 1853 edition of Lucy Mack Smith's memoirs because of its allusion to folk magic, "which was a sensitive subject for those not wishing to give credence to claims made in affidavits collected in 1833 by Philastus Hurlbut."

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources
  • Vogel states that the allusion to folk magic is "[o]ne possible reason" for the exclusion of this reference from the 1853 edition.
  • The Quinn citation is actually part of Vogel's footnote on page 285, note 84:

D. Michael Quinn has noted, "Joseph Smith's mother did not deny her family's participation in occult activities but simply affirmed that these did not prevent family members from accomplishing other, equally important work. More significantly, she also affirmed that these folk magic activities were part of her family's religious quest" (Quinn 1987, 55)


From the Wikipedia article:
Quinn also notes that the Smith family "participated in a wide range of magic practices, and Smith's first vision occurred within the context of his family's treasure quest."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Quinn (1998) , p. 31. Michael Coe, professor emeritus of Anthropology at Yale, has called Joseph Smith "a great religious leader...one of the greatest people who ever lived" because like "like a shaman in anthropology," like "magicians doing magic," he "started out faking it" but ended up convincing himself (as well as others) that his visions were true. Coe interview on PBS "The Mormons."

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Violates Wikipedia: Neutral Point-of-View off-site— All Wikipedia articles and other encyclopedic content must be written from a neutral point of view, representing fairly, and as far as possible without bias, all significant views that have been published by reliable sources.
    Violated by John Foxe —Diff: off-site

    It strikes us as odd that Michael D. Coe, an Anthropology professor who is well known as one of the foremost experts on the Maya, is quoted in an article describing the environment in which Joseph Smith's first vision occurred. Dr. Coe is not considered an authority on the First Vision—he is used here simply because of his opinion that Joseph Smith was like a "shaman" and that he started out "faking it." It is helpful to view Dr. Coe's quote in context.

I realized what kind of a person this Joseph Smith was. In my opinion, he was not just a great religious leader; he was a really great American, and I think he was one of the greatest people who ever lived. This extraordinary man, who put together a religion -- probably with many falsities in it, falsehoods, so forth, to begin with -- eventually came to believe in it so much that he really bought his own story and made it believable to other people. In this respect, he's a lot like a shaman in anthropology: these extraordinary religious practitioners in places like Siberia, North America among the Eskimo, the Inuit, who start out probably in their profession as almost like magicians doing magic.

I really think that Joseph Smith, like shamans everywhere, started out faking it. I have to believe this -- that he didn't believe this at all, that he was out to impress, but he got caught up in the mythology that he created. This is what happens to shamans: They begin to believe they can do these things. It becomes a revelation: They're speaking to God. And I don't think they start out that way; I really do not. ... (Michael D. Coe interview off-site)


From the Wikipedia article:
Jan Shipps notes that while Joseph Smith's "religious claims were rejected by many of the persons who had known him in the 1820s because they remembered him as a practitioner of the magic arts," others of his earliest followers were attracted to his claims "for precisely the same reason."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Shipps (1985) , p. 18.

FAIR's analysis:

  •  Correct, per cited sources


From the Wikipedia article:
Richard Bushman has called the spiritual tradition of the Smith family "a religious melee." Joseph Smith, Sr., insisted on morning and evening prayers, but he was spiritually adrift. "If there was a personal motive for Joseph Smith Jr.'s revelations, it was to satisfy his family's religious want and, above all, to meet the need of his oft-defeated, unmoored father."

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Bushman , pp. 25–27

FAIR's analysis:

  • From the cited source, p. 25:

Joseph Sr. was not lacking in religion. He spontaneously knelt with his wife to pray for Sophronia in her illness and insisted on morning and evening prayers. Revival seasons aroused his desire for religion. when Solomon Mack was converted during the revival of 1810 and 1811, Joseph Sr. "became much excited upon the subject of religion." What he could not embrace was the institutional religion of his time.


From the Wikipedia article:
No members of the Smith family were church members before 1820, the reported date of the First Vision.

Wikipedia footnotes:

  • Quinn (1998) , p. 322. Quinn calls the Smiths "unchurched Christians" who "possessed seer stones, a dagger for drawing the required circles, as well as magic parchments to ward off thieves and communicate with good spirits to help find treasures."

FAIR's analysis:

  • John A. Matzko notes: "[S]ometime before 1828 Lucy and three of her children—Hyrum, Samuel, and Sophronia—joined the Presbyterian church..." (John A. Matzko, "The Encounter of Young Joseph Smith with Presbyterianism," Dialogue 40/3 (2007): 71.) Matzko's statement is correct based upon known historical documents, without speculating upon whether or not the Smith's had joined in 1820.
  •  References not included in the Wikipedia article
    Lucy's baptism prior to 1820, as recorded in her own history, is not noted.
  • Lucy states,

This course I pursued for many years till at last I concluded that my mind would be easier if I were baptized and I found a minister who was willing to baptize me and leave me free from any membership in any church after which I pursued the same course untill the a my oldest son attained his 22nd year. (1845 manuscript, original spelling retained) (Vogel, Early Mormon Documents 1:242)


References

Wikipedia references for "First Vision"
  • Abanes, Richard, (2002), One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church , New York: Four Walls Eight Windows .
  • Allen, James B., (1980), Emergence of a Fundamental: The Expanding Role of Joseph Smith's First Vision in Mormon Religious Thought off-site .
  • Allen, James B., (1966), The Significance of Joseph Smith's First Vision in Mormon Thought off-site .
  • Anderson, Richard Lloyd, Joseph Smith’s Testimony of the First Vision off-site .
  • Anderson, Richard Lloyd, (1969), Circumstantial Confirmation Of the first Vision Through Reminiscences off-site .
  • Backman, Milton V., Jr., (1969), Awakenings in the Burned-over District: New Light on the Historical Setting of the first Vision off-site .
  • Berge, Dale L., Archaeological Work at the Smith Log House off-site .
  • Bauder, Peter, Vogel, Dan (editor) (1834), Early Mormon Documents , Salt Lake City: Signature Books .
  • Bitton, Davis, (1994), Historical Dictionary of Mormonism , Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press .
  • Brown, Matthew B., Historical or Hysterical— Anti-Mormons and Documentary Sources Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research off-site .
  • Bushman, Richard Lyman, (2005), Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling , New York: Knopf .
  • Cowdery, Oliver, Far West Record: Minutes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830–1844 , Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company .
  • Cowdery, Oliver, (1834), Letter III off-site .
  • Cowdery, Oliver, (1835), Letter IV off-site .
  • Flake, Kathleen, (2004), The Politics of American Religious Identity: The Seating of Senator Reed Smoot, Mormon Apostle University of North Carolina Press .
  • Hill, Marvin S., (1980), The First Vision Controversy: A Critique and Reconciliation .
  • Howard, Richard P., (1980), Joseph Smith's First Vision: The RLDS Tradition off-site .
  • Howe, Eber Dudley, ed., The Mormon Creed off-site .
  • Jessee, Dean (1989), The Papers of Joseph Smith: Autobiographical and Historical Writings {{{pages}}}
  • Jessee, Dean C., (Spring, 1971), How Lovely was the Morning off-site .
  • Jessee, Dean C., (1969), Early Accounts of Joseph Smith's First Vision .
  • Mormon History off-site .
  • Mack, Solomon, (1811), A Narraitve [sic] of the Life of Solomon Mack Windsor: Solomon Mack off-site .
  • Matzko, John A., (2007), The Encounter of the Young Joseph Smith with Presbyterianism .
  • McKune, Joshua, Review of Mormonism: Rejoiner to Elder Cadwell off-site .
  • Neibaur, Alexander, (1841–48), Journal of Alexander Neibaur off-site .
  • Palmer, Grant H., (2002), An Insider's View of Mormon Origins Signature Books .
  • Phelps, W.W., ed., (1833), A Book of Commandments, for the Government of the Church of Christ , Zion: William Wines Phelps & Co. off-site .
  • Porter, Larry C., (1969), Reverend George Lane—Good "Gifts", Much "Grace", and Marked "Usefulness" off-site .
  • Pratt, Orson, (1840), A Interesting Account of Several Remarkable Visions, and of the Late Discovery of Ancient American Records , Edinburgh: Ballantyne and Hughes off-site .
  • Quinn, D. Michael, (1998), Early Mormonism and the Magic World View Signature Books .
  • Ray, Craig N., (2002), Joseph Smith's History Confirmed Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research off-site .
  • Riley, I. Woodbridge, (1903), The Founder of Mormonism: A Psychological Study of Joseph Smith, Jr. , New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. off-site
  • Roberts, B. H. (editor) (1902), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints LDS Church off-site .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., Jessee, Dean C (editor) (1832), Personal Writings of Joseph Smith , Salt Lake City: Deseret Book off-site .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., Jessee, Dean C (editor) (1835), Personal Writings of Joseph Smith , Salt Lake City: Deseret Book off-site .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., (1838), History of the Church , copied to Jessee, Dean C (editor) (1839–1843), Personal Writings of Joseph Smith Deseret Book .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., (1842a), Church History [Wentworth Letter] off-site .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., (1842b), History of Joseph Smith off-site .
  • Smith, Joseph, Jr., (1842c), History of Joseph Smith off-site .
  • Smith, Lucy Mack, (1853), Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith the Prophet, and His Progenitors for Many Generations , Liverpool: S.W. Richards off-site .
  • Smith, William, (1883), William Smith on Mormonism: A True Account of the Origin of the Book of Mormon , Lamoni, Iowa: RLDS Church off-site .
  • Smith, William, (1884), The Old Soldier's Testimony off-site .
  • Tanner, Jerald and Sandra (1987 (5th ed)), Mormonism: Shadow or Reality? {{{pages}}}
  • Taylor, John, How a Knowledge of God is Obtained—The Gospel to the Dead—Various Dispensations of the Most High to Mankind—Power of the Priesthood—Restoration of the Gospel Through Joseph Smith—Failings of the Saints—Corruptions of the Wicked off-site .
  • Tucker, Pomeroy, (1867), Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism , New York: D. Appleton off-site .
  • Turner, Orasmus, (1851), History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, and Morris' Reserve , Rochester, New York: William Alling off-site .
  • Vogel, Dan (editor) (1996), Early Mormon Documents , Salt Lake City: Signature Books .
  • Vogel, Dan (editor) (1999), Early Mormon Documents , Salt Lake City: Signature Books .
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  • Vogel, Dan (editor) (2002), Early Mormon Documents , Salt Lake City: Signature Books .
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  • Vogel, Dan, (2004), Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet , Salt Lake City: Signature Books .
  • Waite, David Nye, Sr., The Prairies, Nauvoo, Joseph Smith, the Temple, the Mormons &c off-site .

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